(February 4th, 1746 – October 15th, 1817)
AMONG the remarkable men of modern times, there is perhaps none, whose fame is purer from reproach,
than that of Thaddeus Kosciusko. His name is enshrined in the ruins of his unhappy country, which, with heroic
bravery and devotion, he sought to defend against foreign oppression, and foreign domination.
Kosciusko was born at Warsaw about the year 1755. He was educated at the school of Cadets, in that
city, where he distinguished himself so much in scientific studies as well as in drawing, that he was, selected as
one of four students of that institution, who were sent to travel at the expense of the state, with a view of
perfecting their talents. In this capacity he visited France, where he remained for several years,
devoting himelf to studies of various kinds. On his return to his own country, he entered the army, and obtained
the command of a company. But he was soon obliged to expatriate himself again, in order to fly from a violent but
unrequited passion, for the daughter of the Marshal of Lithuania, one of the first officers of state of the Polish
War of Independence
He bent his steps to that part of North America, which was then waging its war of independence
against England. Here he entered the army, and served with distinction as one of the adjutants of General
Washington. While thus employed, he became acquainted with La Fayette, Lameth, and other distinguished Frenchmen,
serving in the same cause ; and was honoured by receiving the most flattering praises from Franklin, as well as the
public thanks of the congress. of the United Provinces. He was also decorated with the new American order of
Cincinnatus, being the only European, except La Fayette, to whom it was given.
Return To Poland
At the termination of the war he returned to his own country, where he lived in retirement till the
year 1789, at which period he was promoted by the Diet, to the rank of Major-General. That body was at this time
endeavouring to place its military force upon a respectable footing, in the vain hope of restraining and
diminishing the domineering influence of foreign powers, in what still remained of Poland. It also occupied itself
in changing the vicious constitution of that unfortunate and ill-governed country—in rendering the monarchy
hereditary—in declaring universal toleration—and in preserving the privileges of the nobility, while at the same
time it ameliorated the condition of the lower orders.
In all these improvements, Stanislas Poniatowski, the reigning king, readily concurred; though the
avowed intention of the Diet was, to render the crown hereditary in the Saxon family. The King of Prussia (Frederic
William IL), who, from the time of the Treaty of Cherson in 1787, between Russia and Austria, had become hostile to
the former power, also encouraged the Poles in their proceedings ; and even gave them the most positive assurances
of assisting them, in case the changes they were effecting occasioned any attacks from other sovereigns.
Russia at length, having made peace with the Turks, prepared to throw her sword into the scale. A
formidable opposition to the measures of the Diet had arisen, even among the Poles themselves, and occasioned what
was called the confederation of Targowicz, to which the Empress of Russia promised her assistance. The feeble
Stanislas, who had proclaimed the new constitution, in 1791, bound himself in 1792 to sanction the Diet of Grodno,
which restored the ancient constitution, with all its vices and all its abuses.
In the meanwhile, Frederic William, King of Prussia, who had so mainly contributed to excite the
Poles to their enterprises, basely deserted them, and refused to give them any assistance. On the contrary, he
stood aloof from the contest, waiting for that share of the spoil, which the haughty Empress of the north might
think proper to allot to him, as the reward of his non-interference.
Battle of Zielenec
But though thus betrayed on all sides, the Poles were not disposed to submit without a struggle.
They flew to arms, and found in the nephew of their king, the Prince Joseph Poniatowski, a general worthy to
conduct so glorious a cause. Under his command Kosciusko first became known in European warfare. He distinguished
himself in the battle of Zielenec, and still more in that of Dubienska, which took place on the 18th of June, 1792.
Upon this latter occasion, he defended for six hours, with only four thousand men, against fifteen thousand
Russians, a post which had been slightly fortified in twenty-four hours, and at last retired with inconsiderable
But the contest was too unequal to last ; the patriots were overwhelmed by enemies from without,
and betrayed by traitors within, at the head of whom was their own sovereign. The Russians took possession of the
country, and proceeded to appropriate those portions of Lithuania and Volhynia, which suited their convenience;
while Prussia, the friendly Prussia, invaded another part of the kingdom.
Honorary Citizenship of France
Under these circumstances, the most distinguished officers in the Polish army retired from the
service, and of this number was Kosciusko. Miserable at the fate of his unhappy country, and at the same time an
object of suspicion to the ruling powers, he left his native land, and retired to Leipsic ; where he received
intelligence of the honour which had been conferred upon him by the Legislative Assembly of France, who had
invested him with the quality of a French citizen.
Uprising in Poland
But his fellow-countrymen were still anxious to make another struggle for independence ; and they
unanimously selected Kosciusko as their chief and generalissimo. He obeyed the call, and found the patriots eager
to combat under his orders. Even the noble Joseph Poniatowski, who had previously commanded in chief, returned from
France, whither he had retired, and received from the hands of Kosciusko the charge of a portion of his army.
The patriots had risen in the north of Poland, to which part Kosciusko first directed his steps.
Anxious to begin his campaign with an action of vigour, he marched rapidly towards Cracow, which town he entered
triumphantly on the 24th of March, 1794. He forthwith published a manifesto against the Russians ; and then, at the
head of only five thousand men, he marched to meet their army. He encountered, on the 4th of April, ten thousand
Russians at a place called Wraclawic ; and entirely defeated them, after a combat of four hours. He returned in
triumph to Cracow, and shortly afterwards marched along the left bank of the Vistula to Polaniec, where he
established his head quarters.
Meanwhile the inhabitants of Warsaw, animated by the recital of the heroic deeds of their
countrymen, had also raised the standard of independence, and were successful in driving the Russians from the
city, after a murderous conflict of three days. In Lithuania and Samogitia an equally successful revolution was
effected, before the end of April ; while the Polish troops stationed in Volhynia and Podolia, marched to the
reinforcement of Kosciusko.
Frederic William of Prussia
Thus far fortune seemed to smile upon the cause of Polish freedom—the scene was, however, about to
change. The undaunted Kosciusko, having first organized a national council to conduct the affairs of government,
again advanced against the Russians. On his march, he met a new enemy, in the person of the faithless Frederic
William of Prussia ; who, without having even gone through the preliminary of declaring war, had advanced into
Poland, at the head of forty thousand men.
Kosciusko, with but thirteen thousand men, attacked the Prussian army on the 8th of June, at
Szcekociny. The battle was long and bloody ; at length, overwhelmed with numbers, he was obliged to retreat towards
Warsaw. This he effected in so able a manner, that his enemies did not dare to harass him in his march ; and he
effectually covered the capital, and maintained his position for two months against vigorous and continued attacks.
Immediately after this reverse the Polish General Zaionczeck lost the battle of Chelm, and the Governor of Cracow
had the baseness to deliver the town to the Prussians, without attempting a defence.
These disasters occasioned disturbances among the disaffected at Warsaw, which, however, were put
down by the vigour and firmness of Kosciusko.
On the 13th of July, the forces of the Prussians and Russians, amounting to fifty thousand men,
assembled under the walls of Warsaw, and commenced the siege of that city. After six weeks spent before the place,
and a succession of bloody conflicts, the confederates were obliged to raise the siege ; but this respite to the
Poles was but of short duration.
Their enemies increased fearfully in number, while their own resources diminished. Austria now
determined to assist in the annihilation of Poland, and caused a body of her troops to enter that kingdom.
at the same moment, the Russians ravaged Lithuania ; and the two corps of the Russian army, commanded by Suwarof
and Fersen, ',effected their junction in spite of the battle of Krupezyce, which the Poles had ventured upon with
doubtful issue, against the first of these commanders, on the 16th of September.
Kosciusko Defends Poland
Upon receiving intelligence of these events, Kosciusko left Warsaw and placed himself at the head
of the Polish army. He was attacked by the very superior forces of the confederates on the 10th of October,
1794, at a place called Macieiowice ; and for many hours supported the combat against overwhelming odds. At length
he was severely wounded, and as he fell, he uttered the prophetic words, " Finis
Polonice." It is asserted, that he had exacted from his followers an oath, not to suffer him to fall alive into the
hands of the Russians, and that in consequence the Polish cavalry, being unable to carry him off, inflicted some
severe sabre wounds on him, and left him for dead on the field ; a savage fidelity, which we half admire even in
Be this as it may, he was recognized and delivered from the plunderers by some Cossack chiefs ; and
thus was saved from death to meet a scarcely less harsh fate—imprisonment in a Russian dungeon.
Thomas Wawrzecki became the successor of Kosciusko in the command of the army ; but with the loss of their heroic
leader, all hope had deserted the breasts of the Poles. They still, however, fought with all the obstinacy of
despair, and defended the suburb of Warsaw, called Raga, with great gallantry. At length this post was wrested from
them. Warsaw itself capitulated on the 9th of November, 1(94; and this calamity was followed by the entire
dissolution of the Polish army on the 18th of the same month.
During this time, Kosciusko remained in prison at Petersburgh ; but, at the end of two years, the
death of his persecutress the Empress Catherine released him. One of the first acts of the Emperor Paul was to
restore him to his liberty, and to load him with various marks of his favour. Among other gifts of the autocrat was
a pension, by which, however, the high-spirited patriot would never consent to profit. No sooner was he beyond the
reach of Russian influence than he returned to the donor the instrument, by which this humiliating favour was
conferred. From this period the life of Kosciusko was passed in retirement.
He went first to England, and then to the United States of America. He returned to the Old World in
1798, and took up his abode in France, where he divided his time between Paris, and a country house he had bought
near Fontainebleau. While here he received the appropriate present of the sword of John Sobieski, which was sent to
him by some of his countrymen serving in the French armies in Italy, who had found it in the shrine at Loretto,
Napoleon, when about to invade Poland in 1807, wished to use the name of Kosciusko, in order to rally the people of
the country round his standard. The patriot, aware that no real freedom was to be hoped for under such auspices, at
once refused to lend himself to his wishes. Upon this the Emperor forged Kosciusko's signature to an address to the
Poles, which was distributed throughout the country. Nor would he permit the injured person to deny the
authenticity of this act in any public manner.
The real state of the case was, however, made known to many through the private representations of
Kosciusko ; but he was never able to publish a formal denial of the transaction till after the fall of
When the Russians in 1814 had penetrated into Champagne, and were advancing towards Paris, they were astonished to
hear that their former adversary was living in retirement in that part of the country.
The circumstances of this discovery were striking. The commune in which Kosciusko lived was
subjected to plunder, and among the troops thus engaged he observed a Polish regiment. Transported with anger he
rushed among them, and thus addressed the officers ; "When I commanded brave soldiers they never pillaged ; and I
should have punished severely subalterns who allowed of disorders such as those which we see around. Still more
severely should I have punished older officers, who authorized such conduct by their culpable neglect."—" And who
are you," was the general cry, " that you dare to speak with such boldness to us ?"—" I am Kosciusko."
The effect was electric: the soldiery cast down their arms, prostrated themselves at his feet, and
cast dust upon their heads according to a national usage, supplicating his forgiveness for the fault which they had
committed. For twenty years the name of Kosciusko had not been heard in Poland save as that of an exile ; yet it
still retained its ancient power over Polish hearts ; a power never used but for some good and generous end.
The Emperor Alexander honoured him with a long interview, and offered him an asylum in his own
country. But nothing could induce Kosciusko again to see his unfortunate native land. In 1815, he retired to
Soleure, in Switzerland ; where he died, October 16th, 1817, in consequence of an injury received by a fall from
his horse. Not long before he had abolished slavery upon his Polish estate, and declared all his serfs entirely
free, by a deed registered and executed with every formality that could ensure the full performance of his
intention. The mortal remains of Kosciusko were removed to Poland at the expense of Alexander, and have found a
fitting place of rest in the cathedral of Cracow, between those of his companion in arms, Joseph Poniatowski, and
the greatest of Polish warriors, John Sobieski.